Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Language, Education, Humanities and Innovation 2016

Leadership Preparatory Training Design Characteristics and Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Aspiring School Leaders in Malaysia

Santhanamary R. Anthony, Hamdan Said

Temenggong Ibrahim Institute of Teacher Education, Malaysia


Leadership preparatory trainings given to aspiring school leaders (ASLs) are huge investments. However, the added-value of these trainings are questionable and continue to be a major cause of concern locally and internationally. These trainings have been severely criticized for falling short in adequately preparing educational leaders for the challenging task of school leadership. The key criticism of the leadership preparatory trainings identified at local and global fronts was the weaknesses of the training design characteristics (TDCs). The self-efficacy construct which is recognized in the general training models and literature, is also not given due consideration in leadership preparatory trainings. This paper reports on a part of the larger mixed methodology study that evaluated the effectiveness of the National Professional Qualification for Educational Leaders (NPQELs) preparatory training in Malaysia in developing the self-efficacy beliefs of ASLs. It discusses the relationship between the TDCs and self-efficacy beliefs of the ASLs. A total of 226 NPQELs trained ASLs responded to a 66 item, nine point scale questionaire on TDCs and self-efficacy beliefs. Bivariate Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation test was used to analyse the quantitative data. The findings showed that there was a significant positive correlation between TDCs and self-efficacy, r = 0.494 at the level of significant α = 0.01. Among the four TDCs tested, training internship revealed a positive and the most significant correlation in all the self-efficacy dimensions. This was followed by the relevancy of coursework to practice and, trainers and instructional practices’ sub-factors. The TDCs which had the least correlation with self-efficacy beliefs was the selection sub-factor. The research indicates the importance of leadership preparatory trainings to identify and structure its TDCs to develop the self-efficacy beliefs of the ASLs to ensure training effectiveness.


Leadership Preparatory Training, Aspiring School Leaders, Self-Efficacy Beliefs

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