Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Language, Innovation, Culture and Education 2016

Educational Technologies as Mediating Artefacts in Training and Instruction: A Disruptive Innovation for Expansive Learning?

Hernani D. Manalo, Ma. Riza T. Manalo

Dubai Women’s College, UAE & University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos, Philippines


The premise of this study lies in the concept of mediating artefacts that are “integral and inseparable components of human functioning” and that “the focus of the study of mediation should be on its relationship with the other components of an activity system” Engeström (2001). Thus, this study is designed to explore the uses of educational technologies and their impacts as mediating artefacts in training and instruction on the elements of Engeström Activity Theory (AT) Model. It further inquires if the respondents’ choice of educational technology is disruptive innovation for expansive learning. The study chose, by purposive sampling, 34 respondents: 28 are faculty members and trainers and 6 are Higher Education Institutions (HEI’s) Administrators. It covered 3 countries such as United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Philippines. The study adapted the mixed method approach using Engeström (1987) Model of Activity Theory (AT) as its framework for research. The data gathering was done in 3 phases: Initial survey using the self-made questionnaire, Respondents’ interview using semi-structured questions, and Final interview among 6 HEI’s administrators. The interview transcripts were coded appropriately in relation to the key themes. Rank analysis, percentage of responses, and the themes derived during the interview were used to analyze the result of the study. Some of the key findings are: Mobile Learning is the first choice among the top 6 technologies used in training and instruction; the use of top technologies as mediating artefacts in training and instruction has direct impact on the elements of AT Model, particularly on Goals, Rules, Subject, Division of Labor, and Community; the impact towards expansive learning is not only limited to students but also to the faculty members and trainers; lastly, there is no concrete evidence to date that the use of educational technologies is a disruptive innovation for expansive learning.


Activity theory, educational technology, expansive learning, disruptive innovation

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